Romani in Europe

18-04-2023

"I had the great honor of working with the Archives Portal Europe to bring to light a series of the most significant documents related to Roma history in a virtual exhibition commemorating 'the Sigismund of Luxembourg Roma Decree' issued 600 years ago. The selected documents illustrate both the rich and vibrant cultural heritage of the Roma people and the inexhaustible wealth of the archives of Europe. I am hopeful that this precious cooperation will result in greater awareness of Roma history, often marked as forgotten, at the European level. Hereby, I pay tribute to the European archives and their mission, which has evolved over the last decade to promote digital records and preserve cultural heritage. We are honored to be part of this work, which remains essential in uncovering the often-neglected history of the Roma people."

Mgr. Peter Pollák, PhD, Member of the European Parliament, Committee on Culture and Education




"When the aforementioned László vajvoda and his people would arrive at our estates, namely the cities and towns, we strongly command and order, by means of this present document, that you are obliged to assist and protect these László vajvoda and the Gypsies under him, without any hindrance or any kind of harassment, and in fact, to protect them from any hindrance or injury" – declared Sigismund, the Holy Roman Emperor on the 18th of April 1423, in the first privilege (law) regarding Romani people. It was the first anti-discriminatory law issued for Roma.

The Romani have a long and complex history in Europe. They arrived in Europe in the 14th century, and have since settled in many countries throughout the continent. Throughout history, the Roma have faced discrimination and persecution. They were often seen as outsiders and were subjected to forced labour, enslavement, and violence. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Roma were the targets of genocide in some countries, particularly during the Holocaust in Nazi Germany. Despite the challenges they have faced, the Roma have managed to maintain their distinct cultural traditions, including their language, music, and customs. They have also made significant contributions to European culture, particularly in the fields of music and dance. But even today, the Roma continue to face discrimination and social marginalization in many European countries. Efforts have been made in recent years to improve the situation, such as the European Union's Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies, but much work remains to be done to ensure that the Roma have equal rights and opportunities.

Due to poverty, lack of access to education and linguistic segregation, their memories are fragmented and distorted in the archives. As the Roma culture is primarily based on oral tradition, the sources preserved in archives are mostly from the perspective of the majority society, power and institutional system. Those documents that would reflect their own perspective of identity – similarly to other marginalized ethnic, linguistic and social minorities - are painfully underrepresented in our modern archives.

Despite the challenges they have faced, the Roma have managed to maintain their distinct cultural traditions and continue to make significant contributions to European culture. On the 600th anniversary of the privileges issued by Sigismund of Luxembourg [pics 01-02], this APE highlight pays a kind of tribute to the rich and complex history of the Roma people in Europe.

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Only two years after the privileges by Sigismund, this Salvoconducto a favor de Juan de Egipto Menor (Letter in favour of John of Egypt Minor) [pic 03] , from the Archivo Corona de Aragón, documents for the first time the presence of a Romani in the Iberian territory. This Juan was refered to as "conde del Pequeño Egipto", count of the Egypt Minor, as in the Middle Ages was called an area of indeterminate borders that would include Syria, Cyprus and the near territories of the Eastern Mediterranean.

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After a good reception of the Romani people as pilgrims in 1425, came the marginalization of this ethnic minority, accused of being against adapting to Christian social norms. Spain, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, initiated a persecutory strategy aimed at their expulsion. The Royal pragmatics of March 4, 1499 [pic 04] nullified all the letters of protection granted and still in force. It was followed by hundreds of edicts against them [eg, pic 05]. It will not be until the end of the 20th century that the historical discrimination of this ethnic minority in legal systems began to be repaired, in parallel with the recognition of their cultural contribution to the history and cultures of the old European continent.

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Pic 06 represent a 1541 resolution of the local council in Salzburg, Austria, containing various resolutions about the use of wine and meat, trading, treasure diggers, a tax on salt from Hallein (a town near Salzburg) - but first and foremost, on the subject of the "Zigeuner", the gypsies - presumably an anti-Romani law, following the trend in Europe at the time

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Prejudices against Romas as troublemakers and thieves go back centuries, and remain often unchanged; these documents from Italy in 1613 [pic 07], Spain in 1644 [pic 08], and Germany in 1726 [pic 09] all use similar terms about punishing "companies of gypsies" for theft and robbery



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Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár, An 18th C. transcript of the document issued by Sigismund on the 18th April 1423 - recto (Reference code: HU MNL OL DL 107246)
Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár, An 18th C. transcript of the document issued by Sigismund on the 18th April 1423 - verso (Reference code: HU MNL OL DL 107246)
Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, Letter of protection in favour of John of Little Egypt, 1425. Available at https://www.archivesportaleurope.net/advanced-search/search-in-archives/results-(archives)/?&repositoryCode=ES-8019-ACA6&term=Romani+people&levelName=clevel&t=fa&recordId=ES-08019-ACA-UD-120476&c=C626323306
Archivo General de Simancas, Letter stating that the Egyptians (gypsies) and Greeks who live in the Kingdom without a job take one and live with their lords or else leave the land(4 March 1499). Available at https://www.archivesportaleurope.net/advanced-search/search-in-archives/results-(archives)/?&repositoryCode=ES-47161-AGS2&term=Carta+para+que+los+egipcianos+%28gitanos%29+y+griegos+que+viven+en+el+Reino+&levelName=clevel&t=fa&recordId=ES-47161-AGS-UD-117090&c=C475009226
Archivo General de Simancas, Decree of implementation following the March 1499 letter. Available at https://www.archivesportaleurope.net/advanced-search/search-in-archives/results-(archives)/?&repositoryCode=ES-47161-AGS2&term=Sobrecarta+a+las+justicias+del+reino+para+que+cumplan+la+carta+de+4+Marzo+de+1499%2C+por+la+que+se+ordena+a+los+griegos+y+egipcianos&levelName=clevel&t=fa&recordId=ES-47161-AGS-UD-117090&c=C475010757
 Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Resolutionen des Eb Ernst an die Regierung zu Salzburg (page 1), available at https://www.archivesportaleurope.net/advanced-search/search-in-archives/results-(archives)/?&repositoryCode=AT-OeStA&term=Zigeuner&levelName=clevel&t=fa&recordId=AT-HHStA_SbgE_MOM-CA&c=C310020693
Archivo General de Simancas, First page of the letter from Juan Vivas de Cañamás, ambassador in Genoa, to Philip III, King of Spain, regarding the damages caused in Monferrato (in North-West italy) by companies of gypsies and Frenchmen (1613), available here
 Archivo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, First page of the execution of the lawsuit litigated by Pedro de León, prosecutor of the King, with Francisco de Mendoza and other consorts, gypsies, living in Medinaceli (Soria), about robbery, and subsequent sentence of death by hanging (1644), available here
Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt , Public execution of a 'gang of gypsies, thieves, murderers and robbers' active in Upper Hesse (1726), available here

Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár, An 18th C. transcript of the document issued by Sigismund on the 18th April 1423 - recto (Reference code: HU MNL OL DL 107246)

Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár, An 18th C. transcript of the document issued by Sigismund on the 18th April 1423 - verso (Reference code: HU MNL OL DL 107246)

Archivo General de Simancas, First page of the letter from Juan Vivas de Cañamás, ambassador in Genoa, to Philip III, King of Spain, regarding the damages caused in Monferrato (in North-West italy) by companies of gypsies and Frenchmen (1613), available here

Archivo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, First page of the execution of the lawsuit litigated by Pedro de León, prosecutor of the King, with Francisco de Mendoza and other consorts, gypsies, living in Medinaceli (Soria), about robbery, and subsequent sentence of death by hanging (1644), available here

Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt , Public execution of a 'gang of gypsies, thieves, murderers and robbers' active in Upper Hesse (1726), available here

Text by Zoltán Szatucsek, Codruta Mihailovici, Anna Batzeli, Laura Partal Ortega. Research by Zoltán Szatucsek, Ildikó Szerényi, Anna Batzeli, Laura Partal Ortega, Reda Vainauskaitė, Lucília Runa, Silvestre Lacerda, Santiago Muriel, Bogdan Florin Popovici, Claudiu Victor Turcitu, Codruta Mihailovici



Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár, An 18th C. transcript of the document issued by Sigismund on the 18th April 1423 - recto (Reference code: HU MNL OL DL 107246)
Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár, An 18th C. transcript of the document issued by Sigismund on the 18th April 1423 - verso (Reference code: HU MNL OL DL 107246)
Archivo de la Corona de Aragón, Letter of protection in favour of John of Little Egypt, 1425. Available here
Archivo General de Simancas, Letter stating that the Egyptians (gypsies) and Greeks who live in the Kingdom without a job take one and live with their lords or else leave the land (4 March 1499). Available here


Archivo General de Simancas, Decree of implementation following the March 1499 letter. Available here Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Resolutionen des Eb Ernst an die Regierung zu Salzburg (page 1), available here
Archivo General de Simancas, First page of the letter from Juan Vivas de Cañamás, ambassador in Genoa, to Philip III, King of Spain, regarding the damages caused in Monferrato (in North-West italy) by companies of gypsies and Frenchmen (1613), available here
Archivo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, First page of the execution of the lawsuit litigated by Pedro de León, prosecutor of the King, with Francisco de Mendoza and other consorts, gypsies, living in Medinaceli (Soria), about robbery, and subsequent sentence of death by hanging (1644), available here

Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt , Public execution of a 'gang of gypsies, thieves, murderers and robbers' active in Upper Hesse (1726), available here








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This object is currently in copyright. Please contact the providing institution for more information and in order to acquire additional permissions for re-use.

The copyright status of this object has not been evaluated yet. Please contact the providing institution for more information.

You are free to use this object in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. Please note that you are responsible for your own use, including the need to obtain other permissions e.g. with regard to publicity, privacy, or moral rights.

This object is currently in copyright and the rights holder(s) have allowed re-use for educational purposes only. You are free to use this object in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. Please note that you are responsible for your own use, including the need to obtain other permissions e.g. with regard to publicity, privacy or moral rights.

Please contact the providing institution for more information and in order to acquire additional permissions for any other uses.

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