The use of EAC-CPF in the Archives Portal Europe

The Archives Portal Europe also uses the standard Encoded Archival Context for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families (EAC-CPF), which is an XML standard for encoding archive records creators according to the principles of International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families (ISAAR/CPF), drafted by the International Council on Archives (ICA). While the standard EAC-CPF is maintained by the Technical Subcommittee for Encoded Archival Standards (TS-EAS) of the Society of American Archivists (SAA); its website and tag library are hosted by the Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin.

Standards Categories

apeEAD apeEAC-CPF apeMETS EAG

Describing records creators

(This text is partly based on the article: "Archival authority control: an introduction to Encoded Archival Context for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families (EAC-CPF)" by Aranzazu Lafuente Urién, member of the APEx project team. The full article text can be read on the APEx project homepage.)

EAC-CPF is an ongoing initiative within the international archival community to design and implement a prototype standard for encoding descriptions of records creators. The description of individuals, families, and organisations that create records is an essential component of the preservation of the documentary evidence of human activity, which facilitates both access to and interpretation of records. The standards most current version, EAC-CPF 2.0, was released in August 2022. You can read more on the revision towards this latest version on the EAC-CPF homepage.

In 1992, in the Statement of Principles Regarding Archival Description by the International Council on Archives (ICA), point 1.2 defines the purpose of archival description as: “identify and explain the context and content of archival material in order to promote its accessibility” (see: International Council on Archives (ed.), Statement of Principles Regarding Archival Description, Archivaria, 34 (summer 1992), p. 13, http://journals.sfu.ca/archivar/index.php/archivaria/article/download/11837/12789).

Information about the archival context is something specific to the archival theory and practice. The knowledge of creators (in its broadest concept, such as authors, compilers, accumulators or creators of fonds) is one of the pillars of the archives, the expression of the principles of provenance and Respect des fonds. Records cannot be understood very well without knowing the context of their creation: who created the record, what kind of functions caused these records to be created or their association activities.

The name of the creator was considered by the International Council on Archives Ad Hoc Commission on Descriptive Standards (ICA/DDS) as the primary key for the international exchange. The commission’s decision to take on a standard description for creator of archival fonds tackles at the same time the topic of authority control, as yet unfamiliar with the archivists, for the names of those creators (see: Hugo L. P. Stibbe, Standardising Description: the experience of using ISAD(G), LLigall: revista catalana d’arxivistica, 12 (1998), pp. 132-152).

International standards on archival authority control

In the international community, archival authority control, based on the analysis of the context of creation of fonds and the formalisation of the name of the creator, is regulated in four standardised ways:

  • Content standards
  • Structure standards
  • Encoding standards
  • Data value standards

The International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families (ISAAR (CPF)) is a structure standard, developed by the ICA and was first released in 1996, with its latest version in 2004.

Encoding standards are developed to facilitate data exchange. They are based on XML interchange formats. In this process, the recognition of the importance of the context of the production of the documents was one of the most significant steps. The 1994 edition of the General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD(G)), in the description of area's context, as well as the 1996 ISAAR (CPF), point I.2 acknowledged that although the context information could be integrated into the description of the archival unit, it could also be treated independently by combining it with other elements of the description. In this case, information on the context, if done separately from the units of description, has more value for the exchange of information. Thus different holdings - national or international - sharing fonds with the same creator can exchange information more easily, establishing relationships among them. The name of the creator happens to be considered the main access point to retrieve context information. This exchange can be conducted only if the name of the producer is controlled under authority control.

These new ideas started developing in the 1980s; the second version of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) was being reviewed. Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom have worked towards this direction by publishing their archival description standards, such as the Canadian Rules for Archival Descriptions (RAD) or the Manual for Archival Description (MAD) (see: Michael Cook and Margaret Procter, A manual of archival description, 2nd ed., Aldershot, 1989) in 1986. All these works seek to be both content standards and structure, but the English MAD also was a proposing standard for structuring finding aids.

The RAD, as the American Describing archives: a Content Standard (DACS) as we see later, include a statement of principle for the description at the beginning of the rules. In this case the P.04 reads “Creators of archival material must be described. A description of the functions and activities of the creator(s) […] is important to understanding the context in which they were created”. The standards contain rules for presenting access point in chapter 21: provenance access point (at different levels of descriptions), author access point and other non-subjects access points (see: Bureau of Canadian Archivists (ed.), Rules for Archival Description (RAD), Ottawa, 1990, revised version, July 2008).

Between 1990 and 1996 the ICA/DDS produced three documents that need to be combined in order to be understood:

  • the Statement of Principles regarding Archival Description (1993),
  • the ISAD(G) (General International Standard Archival Description) (1994)
  • the ISAAR (CPF) (International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families) (1995).

The most innovative aspect included the adoption of concepts borrowed from the library environment such as access points and authority control, although initially these were not widely accepted (see Stibbe (1998) for more information about works, decisions and results of this group). Between 1996 and 2004, a process of revision of ISAAR (CPF) was undertaken in order to give consistency to the standard (see: Dagmar Parer and Michael Fox, The Internal Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families (ICA) and the essential Data Elements for Internationally Shared Resource Authority Record (IFLA): A comparison and Report, 1998). There has been a major change in the second and final version of ISAAR (CPF) regarding the introduction of concepts taken from entity-relationship (note: The entity-relationship model is based on the most widespread tools for creating representation models by computer scientific); that is, accepting the principle that there is no “one-to-one relationship” anymore between creators when associated with a single fond only but more of a “many-to-many relationships” between the creator and its fonds (see: Stefano Vitali, The second edition of ISAAR (CPF) and authority control in system for archival descriptive system, 2004, http://www.sba.unifi.it/ac/relazioni/vitali_eng.pdf).

ISAAR (CPF) is mainly a tool for the authority control of the names of the creator of archives, and therefore a tool to standardise as an “authorized [sic] form of the name”. It simply refers to the national rules of the subjects (already existence in libraries) or to create them ex-novo. As a tool to optimise access and search, ISAAR (CPF) has similarities and concurrences with the authority control of authors in library catalogues, but looking more broadly than the single author of a work, or demonstration purpose and the requirements and information required to document the context of creation. The area of identity caters for the archival authorities’ needs of dates of existence, institutional history, functions and activities, mandates and legal sources, internal structure or historical context.

The “Relationship area” is without doubt, the most powerful tool of the standard, and includes the influence of the fledgling EAC-CPF standard. It implies the possibility of relationships between creators, as well as widens the scope of relations with other sources (museums, libraries, and other resources), as well as forms of the name standard with other rules. The field of rules, standards and sources become essential for the exchange of information.

The development of EAC-CPF

While ICA was in the process of reviewing the rules of structure, the Society of American Archivists began developing encoded data standards. At the same time that ICA was developing ISAAR (CPF), there was an American effort to develop an SGML-based prototype standard for archival record description. In 1998, after its first release, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) was extended to complement the needs or archival community for creator and context description, towards the Encoded Archival Context – Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families (EAC-CPF) (see: Daniel Pitti, Creator description: encoded archival context, 2004, p. 3). Between 1999 and 2004, a beta version of this standard was developed.

In parallel with the process of review of the first ISAAR (CPF), other projects that have been the key to understand the further process of the rules of structure, content and exchange, arose. Considering its subsequent impact in the EAC development, the most important project was the project called CUSTARD (Canadian-U.S. Task force on Archival Description). As envisaged, the project would produce a content standard that would replace APPM and possibly the RAD, accommodate all the elements of ISAD(G) and ISAAR (CPF) and be applicable to all types of archival descriptions (see: Society of American Archivists (ed.), Describing archives: a content standards (DACS), Chicago, 2004, preface). After a two-year work, a draft of rules was developed which has been the starting point of two important works of reference on the content of descriptions: a second version of the Canadian RAD (RAD2) was created in 2008. The Americans published the DACS in 2004.

The DACS rule 6, in contrast with the Anglo-Saxon and European traditions that did not consider as “records” those not generated by public institutions, leaving out those generated or created by individuals or families, says: “The principles of archival description apply equally to records created by corporate bodies, individuals or families”. From 2005 to 2009, while DACS has being discussed, librarians were working in parallel to by reviewing and adapting AACR2 towards Resource Description and Access (RDA) standards.

The end result was the development of EAC-CPF, its adoption by the SAA as an encoding standard and the need to provide guidance on the creation of the archival authority records.

Note: In 2012, ICA mandated the newly established Expert Group on Archival Description (EGAD) to develop a conceptual data model for archival description that identifies and defines the essential components of archival description and their interrelations and to thereby set out a strategy to unify the four existing standards of the ICA, ISAD(G) and ISAAR (CPF), plus the International Standard for Describing Functions (ISDF) and International Standard for Describing Institutions with Archival Holdings (ISDIAH), in a single standard as far as possible. In addition, this work had to be aligned with investigations on models of semantic web technologies, in particular conceptual models (or ontologies) and Linked Open Data (LOD). The result of EGAD's work is the new standard Records in Contexts, which includes the RiC Conceptual Model and the RiC Ontology along with further documentation.

Development of the apeEAC-CPF profile

As one could imagine, to rule the information which must be or must not be given by an archive in a portal which aims to collect content from all over Europe, is a question of negotiation and diplomacy. When developing the apeEAC-CPF profile, the APEx project hence adopted a workflow that already had proven to be successful when discussing and defining the use of EAD and EAG for Archives Portal Europe; all partners of the portal were asked for their experiences, usage and plans for future usage of EAC-CPF. Partners who answered positively, which means, they were using EAC-CPF or at least planned to do so, were invited to join the discussions and work on the EAC-CPF profile for the Archives Portal Europe based on the eight local profiles and example files provided by partners in the context of this first step.

All available specifications and example files of the eight partners were compared for the usage of elements and attributes and, in comparison with the overall standard, it turned out that some elements and attributes were never or hardly used by partners. These elements were excluded from the profile at first. Only elements which were used by at least half of the partners were discussed within the group with regard to their potential use in the central application profile. Furthermore the usage of terms and vocabularies was discussed; for some attributes and elements, the profile defines limited vocabularies, e.g. with regard to typing the parts of a name as first name, surname, title, prefix etc.

A three-day face-to-face meeting of the APEx project's EAC-CPF core group and a comprehensive discussion via email and phone meetings were necessary to come up with a draft for the apeEAC-CPF profile. This draft was then proof-read by all project partners and any feedback was considered for the next draft version. Next to the requirements of European archivists, of course, the expected functions around archival context information in the Archives Portal Europe were taken in account for the data structure. The potential expectations from portal users were discussed by archivists and technicians of the project. Scenarios for information display, for possible and useful relations between information and for different possibilities to search for information were designed. Here it turned out, that the encoding of language information is crucial for a multilingual portal like the Archives Portal Europe. With language attributes in the XML files, each data provider can declare explicitly the specific language of a certain piece of information and the portal will be able to display accordingly.

Archival context information in the Archives Portal Europe

Until summer 2014, the APEnet project and its successor, the APEx project, developed and published a gateway to more than 600 archives from 29 European countries. Over 400 of these archives published their archival descriptions in the portal. The holding guides and finding aids, which describe the archival fonds and collections, are accessible within a full text search and in a more structured way through the European archival landscape.

Whereas the portal indeed can show the relations between an archive and its fonds and, of course, the relations and hierarchical coherences within a fonds, back then it was not possible to link fonds from different archives directly. An accepted way to visualise relations between fonds is the reference to common context information, like the creators or provenance of the material. The idea is to link different fonds or collections from one or more institutions to the same corporate body, person or family, which is the creator of the material or is otherwise related to this. This corporate body, person or family, or more generally speaking, the agent, is a connecting point between fonds and could be linked to other related agents as well. The archival descriptions in the Archives Portal Europe would hence not exist next to each other anymore, but would be related. For users, especially users, who have no broader experience with archives and the unique access to archival information, it would be easier to find specific information with agents as an alternative entry. A search could be started or extended for names instead of just concentrating on a search for archival descriptions. Depending on the implemented functions, the access to information might be made by places of interest, by a time span or even through alphabetical browsing.

In order to offer these linked archival information, it was necessary to provide an as easy as possible way for archival institutions to deliver these context information. Some of the APEx project partners already worked with the international technical standard to describe archival context information, EAC-CPF. Provided they were in a position to export this XML format from their own system, it could subsequently be uploaded to the portal with the provided tools. Like finding aids, the file is uploaded in the dashboard of the Archives Portal Europe and can be processed there. EAC-CPF files can be converted to apeEAC-CPF and validated through the corresponding schema. The files can be published and downloaded as well.

In addition, there is a form provided in the dashboard so that content providers, who cannot export EAC-CPF files from their own system, can create these files centrally. The form does not cover all possible elements of apeEAC-CPF, but provides entering the key information about an entity. The created files can be processed like uploaded files. The same functions are available in the standalone tool of the Archives Portal Europe, the Data Preparation Tool (DPT).

apeEAC-CPF documentation

When you are interested in the question how to map and convert your own data into apeEAC-CPF, then you can make use of these documents produced by the APEx project:

the apeEAC-CPF schema,

  • the technical implementation of the profile

the apeEAC-CPF mapping guide and tag library as incorporated in the APEx project Deliverable D4.4. State of the art report on EAC-CPF and recommendations for implementation in Archives Portal Europe, July 2013

  • this still reflects the current status of apeEAC-CPF as per the end of the APEx project in September 2015, in combination with the changes as described below.

Within the Archives Portal Europe Foundation (APEF), the non-profit organisation that took over the responsibility for Archives Portal Europe after the conclusion of the APEx project in October 2015, the Working Group on Standards (WGoS) is in charge of the maintenance and the further development of the Archives Portal Europe standards. Their work can be followed via GitHub and all changes to apeEAC-CPF since 2015 are documented in the apeEAC-CPF schema.

The WGoS has its own Twitter channel and can be contacted via email at standards@archivesportaleurope.net.

Standards Categories

apeEAD apeEAC-CPF apeMETS EAG

For content providers

Data preparation

Archives Portal Europe help guide

Please select amongst the relevant tips we can help with. If you still have questions, please do not hesitate to contact us, and we will be in touch as soon as possible.

Starting your search here will include all content available in Archives Portal Europe. Simply enter your keyword(s) and hit the search button. Wrap fixed expressions in quotation marks, e.g. “French Revolution”. Check the box to “Search each term separately” in case you are looking for documents containing at least one word, but not necessarily all keywords; this will also allow you to search for the same term in multiple languages at the same time (e.g. “French Revolution” “Révolution Française”). You can also use wildcards - find more about Research Tools here. If you would like to use more specific settings, try our Advanced search

The additional advanced search options give you the possibility to focus your search in:

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When searching with multiple terms at the same time, wrap fixed expressions in quotation marks (e.g. "French Revolution"), or check the box "Search each term separately" in case you are looking for either one term of the other. This will also allow you to search for the same term in multiple languages (e.g. "French Revolution" "Révolution française"). You can also choose one of the suggestions matching your search term once you start typing.

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Use this option to search only one or more keywords, rather than all of them

Select where your search terms should appear specifically inside the archival description:

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You can filter results by selecting where your search terms appears specifically inside the archival description:

  • The name can be the full name of a person, family or organisation as well as only parts of it, e.g. only the last name.
  • The identifier is used internally by the institution or refers to (inter)national vocabularies such as the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF).
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You can filter results by selecting where your search terms appears specifically inside the description of the archive:

  • Name: search term appears in the name of the institution. It can be the full name of an archival institution or only parts of it.
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  • A finding aid is a structured description of archival materials per collection or fonds, up to item level.
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    You can filter by one or more entity types:
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Please note that this filter will only include institutions, for which a type has been provided as part of their descriptions:

  • A business archive holds the records of (often) commercial organisations.
  • A church or religious archive holds the records of church parishes or religious organisations, e.g. birth or death registers.
  • A county or local authority archive holds the records of the county's administrative bodies.
  • A media archive holds audiovisual or sound records, e.g. a film archive or the archive of a broadcasting company.
  • A municipal archive holds the records of a town or city administration.
  • A national archive holds the records of a country's administrative bodies, i.e. from ministries and other public bodies, sometimes also private papers of former ministers, chancellors, or presidents.
  • A private person or family archive holds the records forming the legacy of a prominent person or family.
  • A regional archive holds the records of a region's administrative bodies.
  • A specialised governmental archive holds records of public bodies, often operating on a national level, that are not part of the national archives' holdings.
  • A specialised non-governmental archive or archive of another cultural heritage institution hold collections from various cultural heritage institutions, eg. museum archives, libraries archives, etc
  • A university archive or archive of another research organisation holds the records pertaining to the administration of the according educational or research body.
  • Political parties, popular/labour movements and other non-governmental organisations, associations, agencies and foundations hold the archival collections of these institutions, outside of governmental records and outside of business archives (e.g., NGOs)

Enter a start and/or end date in the format DD-MM-YYYY, i.e. 01-01-1900 for 1 January 1900. This will allow you to focus your search on a specific period of time. You can use the calendar function or type directly in the text field. The checkbox "Exact date search" concentrates the search on one specific date.

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A holdings guide is an overview of the collections and fonds of one archival institution.

A finding aid is a structured description of archival materials per collection or fonds up to item level.

You can filter results by selecting one or more countries of interest. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results by one or more holding archival institutions. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can select to view results from a specific Finding Aid, i.e., a structured description of archival materials per collection or fonds up to item level. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter by type of descriptive document:

  • "Holdings Guide": an overview of the collections and fonds of one archival institution.
  • "Source guide": a topic-oriented overview of collections and fonds of one or several institutions. a description of the archival collections available. Similar to Holdings guides
  • "Finding aid" provides more detailed descriptions of the archival materials of specific collections or fonds

You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results by selecting "Fonds description" for a general overview or "Other descriptions" for item level. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results by selecting only those containing digital objects, i.e. the link to the digitised version of the archival material you are looking for. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results by type of digital object you are interested in:

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You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your filter selection will appear above. Click "Clear filters" to see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results based on the date of creation of the archival material (which may differ from the time period you are interested in - e.g., philosophers from the Enlightenment period reflecting on classic thinkers)

  • Full dates includes normalised date information available for date-based searches. It is recommended to combine this selection with the filters "Start timespan" and "End timespan" for more details.
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Please note that not all documents contain a machine-readable date. More information here

You can filter results based on the date of creation of the archival material (which may differ from the time period you are interested in - e.g., philosophers from the Enlightenment period reflecting on classic thinkers). This filter will only include materials with "Full dates", i.e. those that include date information available for date-based searches. You can either search for a specific date of interest or focus step by step on the time span of a century, decade, year or month. When searching for a specific date, enter the date in the format DD-MM-YYYY, i.e. 01/01/1900 for 1 January 1900, via the calendar function or by typing directly in the text field.
This filter concentrates on the earliest dates mentioned in the materials.

You can filter results based on the date of creation of the archival material (which may differ from the time period you are interested in - e.g., philosophers from the Enlightenment period reflecting on classic thinkers). This filter will only include materials with "Full dates", i.e. those that include date information available for date-based searches. You can either search for a specific date of interest or focus step by step on the time span of a century, decade, year or month. When searching for a specific date, enter the date in the format DD-MM-YYYY, i.e. 01/01/1900 for 1 January 1900, via the calendar function or by typing directly in the text field.
This filter concentrates on the latest dates mentioned in the materials.

You can filter results based on the language in which the material is written. Please note that this filter will only include materials where specific language information has been provided by the institution and is therefore in a machine-readable format. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your selection will then be displayed above the search results (see "Search filters"). Clicking "Clear filters" will remove your selection and you will see all results matching your initial search request again.



You can filter results by selecting one or more topics of interest. Please note that this filter will only include materials where the topic has been assigned and is therefore in a machine-readable format. Read how to assign a topic to documents on the Topics page. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your selection will then be displayed above the search results (see "Search filters"). Clicking "Clear filters" will remove your selection and you will see all results matching your initial search request again.



You can filter results by selecting where your search terms appears specifically inside the archival description:

  • The name can be the full name of a person, family or organisation as well as only parts of it, e.g. only the last name.
  • The identifier is used internally by the institution or refers to (inter)national vocabularies such as the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF).
  • The place can be the place of birth (or foundation), the place of death (or closing), the place of work or any other place of importance.
  • The occupation is the profession or job of a person
  • The mandate is a law, directive or charter that establishes and defines an organisation's powers, functions, responsibilities or sphere of activities.
  • The function is an activity, role, or purpose performed or manifested by a person, family or organisation

You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your selection will then be displayed above the search results (see "Search filters"). Clicking "Clear filters" will remove your selection and you will see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results by type of entities:

  • Person (e.g., John Locke or Jean Jaques Rousseau)
  • Family (e.g., the family Bonaparte)
  • Corporate body (an institution, organisation, or company, e.g. the "Ministerie van Justitie")
You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your selection will then be displayed above the search results (see "Search filters"). Clicking "Clear filters" will remove your selection and you will see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results based on the language in which the material is written. Please note that this filter will only include materials where specific language information has been provided by the institution and is therefore in a machine-readable format. You can also combine this filter with other filters. Your selection will then be displayed above the search results (see "Search filters"). Clicking "Clear filters" will remove your selection and you will see all results matching your initial search request again.

You can filter results based on the type of holding institution. Please note that this filter will only include institutions, for which a type has been provided as part of their descriptions.

  • A business archive holds the records of (often) commercial organisations.
  • A church or religious archive holds the records of church parishes or religious organisations, e.g. birth or death registers.
  • A county or local authority archive holds the records of the county's administrative bodies.
  • A media archive holds audiovisual or sound records, e.g. a film archive or the archive of a broadcasting company.
  • A municipal archive holds the records of a town or city administration.
  • A national archive holds the records of a country's administrative bodies, i.e. from ministries and other public bodies, sometimes also private papers of former ministers, chancellors, or presidents.
  • A private person or family archive holds the records forming the legacy of a prominent person or family.
  • A regional archive holds the records of a region's administrative bodies.
  • A specialised governmental archive holds records of public bodies, often operating on a national level, that are not part of the national archives' holdings.
  • A specialised non-governmental archive or archive of another cultural heritage institution hold collections from various cultural heritage institutions, eg. museum archives, libraries archives, etc
  • A university archive or archive of another research organisation holds the records pertaining to the administration of the according educational or research body.
  • Political parties, popular/labour movements and other non-governmental organisations, associations, agencies and foundations hold the archival collections of these institutions, outside of governmental records and outside of business archives (e.g., NGOs)

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This object is in the public domain, but has been digitised as the outcome of a public-private partnership, where the terms of the contractual agreement limit commercial use for a certain period of time. You can copy, redistribute, remix, tweak, and build upon the object for non-commercial use only.

This object has been identified as an Orphan Work in the country of first publication and in line with the requirements of the national law implementing Directive 2012/28/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on certain permitted uses of orphan works.

You are free to use this object in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. Please note that you are responsible for your own use, including the need to obtain other permissions e.g. with regard to publicity, privacy or moral rights.

This object is in the public domain, but is subject to known legal restrictions other than copyright which prevent its free re-use. Please contact the providing institution for more information.

This object is currently in copyright. Please contact the providing institution for more information and in order to acquire additional permissions for re-use.

The copyright status of this object has not been evaluated yet. Please contact the providing institution for more information.

You are free to use this object in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. Please note that you are responsible for your own use, including the need to obtain other permissions e.g. with regard to publicity, privacy, or moral rights.

This object is currently in copyright and the rights holder(s) have allowed re-use for educational purposes only. You are free to use this object in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. Please note that you are responsible for your own use, including the need to obtain other permissions e.g. with regard to publicity, privacy or moral rights.

Please contact the providing institution for more information and in order to acquire additional permissions for any other uses.

This object is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons - Attribution, ShareAlike (BY-SA) licence. You can copy, redistribute, remix, tweak and build upon the licensed object, even for commercial purposes, as long as you attribute the rights holder as described in the licence, and you license your adaptations of the object under the same terms.

This object is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons - Attribution, ShareAlike (BY-SA) licence. You can copy, redistribute, remix, tweak and build upon the licensed object, even for commercial purposes, as long as you attribute the rights holder as described in the licence, and you license your adaptations of the object under the same terms.

This object is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons - Attribution, No Derivates (BY-ND) licence. You can copy and redistribute the object, even commercially, as long as no alteration is made to the object and you attribute the rights holder as described in the licence.

If you remix, transform or build upon the object, you may not distribute the modified material.

This object is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons - Attribution, Non-Commercial (BY-NC) licence. You can copy, redistribute, remix, tweak, and build upon the licensed object for non-commercial use only and as long as you attribute the rights holder as described in the licence.

This object is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons - Attribution, Non-Commercial, ShareAlike (BY-NC-SA) licence. You can copy, redistribute, remix, tweak, and build upon the licensed object for non-commercial use only, as long as you attribute the rights holder as described in the licence, and as long as you license your adaptations of the object under the same terms.

This object is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons - Attribution, Non-Commercial, No Derivates (BY-NC-ND) licence. You can copy and redistribute the object for non-commercial use only, as long as no alteration is made to the object and as long as you attribute the rights holder as described in the licence.

If you remix, transform or build upon the object, you may not distribute the modified material.