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1.2. Ducado de Arcos

1176 / 1899 Reference: ES-45168-AHNOB-UD-3907726 - ES-45168-AHNOB-UD-3914711 View in original presentation

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España
Archivo Histórico de la Nobleza

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Scope and content

Su archivo patrimonial es importante para ver la transición entre la ricohombría palaciega plenomedieval a la nobleza terrateniente y fronteriza andaluza bajomedieval. A través de su acervo documentación puede rastrearse la dinámica de alianza o conflictos con otras grandes familias andaluzas como los Medina-Sidonia, así como la contradictoria trayectoria de la Casa durante el reinado de los Reyes Católicos. Por lo que ataye a la Modernidad, los sucesivos titulares del linaje se imbricaron en la alta administración de los Austrias; paradigma de ello sería, mediado el siglo XVII, que Rodrigo Ponce de León, IV duque de Arcos, fue virrey de Valencia (1642-1645) y de Nápoles (1646-1648), en tanto que su hermano Luis Ponce de León, era consejero de Estado y de Guerra, virrey de Navarra (1645-1646) y gobernador de Milán (1662-1668), cuyos documentos institucionales se mezclan con los privados; sus sucesores serían relegados por los Borbones a un segundo plano, centrándose en gestionar su Estado, apoyados en un amplio repertorio de ordenanzas municipales y señoriales.

Record creator

Language of the material

spa/esl (Español) .

Place of use

OSUNA,F.2

Extent

300 Caja(s)

Archival history

El estado señorial de Arcos pertenece a los Ponce de León, linaje que tiene su origen en el tronco castellano de los Cabrera, uno de cuyos primogénitos, Pedro Ponce de Cabrera, había casado con Aldonza Alfonso de León, hija ilegítima de Alfonso IX y Aldonza Martinez de Silva, Señora del honor de Mansilla.

Fernán Ponce de León inició uno de los mayorazgos andaluces mas antiguos en torno a la ciudad de Marchena, señorío que recibe en 1309 de Fernando IV. Posteriormente se agregarán al mayorazgo , Mairena (1342) por merced de Alfonso IX, Bailén (1349) por compra a la corona, y Arcos (1440) concedida por Juan II, con el título de conde, a cambio del título de conde de Medellín.

Rodrigo Ponce de León III Conde de Arcos, II marqués y I duque de Cadiz, adquiere los Palacios (1471) y Pruna (1482). Los Reyes Católicos le conceden la villa y título de Marqués de Zahara, título que llevarán los primogénitos de la Casa.

De los Reyes Católicos también recibe la villa de los Casares (1493) con el título de conde, otorgándole el título de Duque de Arcos, en compensación por la incorporación a la corona del ducado de Cadiz.

En 1666 por matrimonio, se incorpora a la casa el título de Duque de Maqueda

Record creators history

Los Ponce de León son uno de los linajes implicados en la reconquista castellana de Al-Andalus que más poder catalizaron en el antiguo reino de Sevilla, junto con los Guzmanes de la Casa de Medina Sidonia, con quienes compitieron durante los siglos XV-XVI.

Esta estirpe, de origen gallego o asturiano, se afincó primero en el reino de León, prosperando a la sonbra de la Corte, y luego algunos de sus miembros acompañaron las huestes que arrebataron Al-andalus al Islam, logrando tierras y honores.

En el siglo XIV se sudecieron las alianzas con los Guzmán, extinguiéndose la rama leonesa a mediados de la centuria, basculando la cabeza del linaje a Andalucía.

Para paliar las pérdidas ocasionadas por la guerra dinástica castellana, y cubrir una deuda familiar, en 1387 se desprendieron de la aldea y castillo de Bornos (Córdoba) a la Casa de Alcalá.

A caballo entre los siglos XIV y XV participarían de las banderías nobiliarias castellanas.

Logran el ducado de Arcos en compensación por la supresión del marquesado de Cádiz, que se incorpora a la Corona. Sus señoríos se extienden por las actuales provinicas de Sevilla (Marchena, capital del Estado ducal; Paradas, Los Palacios, Mairena del Alcor, Guadajoz, las dehesas de Pruna y de las Algámitas), Cádiz (la propia Cádiz, Arcos de la Frontera, Zahara de la Sierra, Rota, Chipiona y la Isla de León, hoy San Fernando, además de las poblaciones de la Serranía de Villaluenga: Villaluenga del Rosario, Ubrique, Benaocaz, Grazalema), Málaga (Casares con Manilva, Genalguacil, Jubrique), Almería (la taha de Marchena: Huécija, Terque, Benquerique, Illae, Alhama, Instinción, Rágol, Alsodux y Alhabia), Jaén (Bailén) y Badajoz (Villagarcía de la Torre).

El heredero del duque de Arcos llevaría el título de marqués de Zahara. De este modo, la rama principal de los Ponce de León fue propietaria del Señorío de Marchena (1309); el condado de de Arcos (1429); el marquesado de Cádiz (1471), luego convertido en ducado (1484) para posteriormente revertir al realengo; el ducado de Arcos (1489); el marquesado de Zahara (1492); el condado de Casares (1493); el condado de Bailén (1522) y el señorío de Villargarcía, cuando Luis Ponce de León, V señor de la villa, se casó con Francisca Ponce de León, hija del III duque de Arcos.

A la muerte de la XIII duquesa de Nájera, Ana Manuela Sinforosa Manrique de Guevara y Velasco, dicho título recayó en el VII Duque de Arcos, cuya descendencia ostentó el XVI, XVII y XVIII ducado de Nájera, hasta que en 1780 se produjo la muerte de Antonio Ponce de León, XI duque de Arcos, y su Casa se incorporó a la de Osuna.

Publication note

Juan Luis CARRIAZO RUBIO: “Los Moriscos y el tópico literario de la lucha contra el Islam en la historiografía de la Casa de Arcos”, en Rodolfo Gil Grimau (dir.), La política y los moriscos en la época de los Austrias (Sevilla la Nueva, 1998), Sevilla la Nueva, 1999, pp. 127-141.

Juan Luis CARRIAZO RUBIO: Los Testamentos de la Casa de Arcos: (1374-1530)

Sevilla, 2003.

Juan Luis CARRIAZO RUBIO, La Casa de Arcos entre Sevilla y la frontera de Granada (1374-1474), Sevilla, 2003.

Francisco CERDÁ Y RICO: Varonía de los Ponces de Leon Señores de Villagarcía, Marqueses de Zahara, y despues Duques de Arcos, conservada únicamente en la casa de D. Francisco Joseph Pablo Ponce de Leon y de la Cueva, Cansino, Espinola, Villavicencio, Haro y Zurita…, Madrid, 1783.

Emílía SALVADOR ESTEBAN y Rafael BENÍTEZ SÁNCHEZ-BLANCO: “Las instrucciones reservadas de Felipe IV al duque de Arcos, virrey de Valencia (1642)”, Estudis: Revista de Historia Moderna, 13 (1987), pp. 151-170.

Federico DEVÍS MÁRQUEZ: Mayorazgo y cambio político. Estudios sobre el mayorazgo de la Casa de Arcos al final de la Edad Media, Cádiz, 1999.

David GARCÍA HERNÁN: “La justicia señorial en el siglo XVI : las audiencias de los estados de Béjar y de Arcos a través de sus ordenanzas”, en La burguesía española en la Edad Moderna: actas del Congreso Internacional celebrado en Madrid y Soria los días 16 a 18 de Diciembre de 1991, Valladolid-Madrid, 1996, I, pp. 533-545.

David GARCÍA HERNÁN: Los Grandes de España en la época de Felipe II: Los duques de Arcos, tesis doctoral UCM., Madrid, 1992.

David GARCÍA HERNÁN: Aristocracia y señorío en la España de Felipe II: la Casa de Arcos, Granada, 1999.

Julián José LOZANO NAVARRO: La Compañía de Jesús en el estado de los duques de Arcos: el Colegio de Marchena (siglos XVI-XVIII), Granada, 2002.

Pedro de SALAZAR Y MENDOZA: Crónica de la excelentissima casa de los Ponçes de Leon. Al duque de Arcos Don Rodrigo quarto de el nombre su cabeça y pariente mayor en España y Francia, Toledo, 1620.

Francisco Javier GUTIÉRREZ NÚÑEZ: “En torno a la documentación señorial: el cabildo de Marchena y el VII duque de Arcos”, Actas del III Congreso de Historia de Andalucía, Córdoba, 2002, pp. 443-458.

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